1.1.1 BACKGROUNG TO THE STUDY
The United Nations (U.N) is an international organization that was established just right after the Second world war where by the Allied forces defeated the Axis powers. The UN as it is generally called was established to bring a new beginning and shape to global politics after the ruins of the second world war . One must also put into account that the United Nations is established based on the mantle of the failed League Of Nations established after the first world war put failed to achieve it aims and objectives of establishment which led to the break out of the Second world war. The name “United Nation” was devised by United state former President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the “Declaration by United Nations” of 1st January 1942 , during the Second world war when representatives of the 26 nations pledged their government to continue fighting together against Axis Power. The UN charter was drawn up by the representatives of the 50 countries at the conference on International Organization which met in San Francisco from 25th April to 26 June, this was in connection to the proposal drawn up in the United states at Dumbarton Oaks in August -October 1944 by China , Soviet Union , United Kingdom and the United states. All theses became official and generally accepted by 24th October 1945 when all the concerned states had ratified the UN charter (The American Forum For Global Education (2010)). With the initial member state of 51 (Poland which was not present at the first signing stage was later allowed to sign making it 51) ,the UN has grown over the years from 51 to 189 member state as at 2001. The UN is accompanied by some structures which see to the carrying out of it activities across the globe ; the general assembly which is equally represented by all member states with equal vote , the secretariat headed by the UN general secretary :” the UN secretariat has matured into a competent international bureaucracy much larger and more complex than anticipated in 1945; the secretary-general once considered to be an administrator has become major world leader”( Jean E. Kranso; 2001), the UN economic and social council called ECOSOC in charge of the special institutions and agencies and deals with the economic and social issues that arises around the globe , the dormant Trusteeship council which was essential in the fight for global independent from colonial rule, also is the international court of justice to maintain checks and balances to all UN resolutions and our main concern the Security Council which is one of the most powerful council of the UN and in the world. The United Nation is aimed at ” the mission to maintain world peace , develop good relations between countries, promote cooperation in solving the world’s problems and encourage a respect for human rights” (Student Handout : Background On The United Nations). With this mission statement the UN has achieved the aim of 191 member state as of recent days .The UN has its headquarters in New York , United States whereby the territory is considered an international territory with separate flag and entity. The official language of the UN are Arabic , Chinese, English , French ,Russian and Spanish.( Student Handout : Background On The United Nations)
1.1.2 THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL.
This opens the way into the UN Security council which is a powerful branch of the UN body. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is a principal organ of the UN. As stated in the UN charter of article 24; member states have conferred the primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security to the Security Council. This is done on the belief that the body is adequate or equipped enough to carry out its resolution on its behalf. All members states of the United Nations have agreed to accept and carry out decision and policies made by the Security Council as stated in Article 25 of the UN charter. In relation to this other organs of the UN can only make recommendations to the government except the General Assembly but on the other hand the UNSC is the only organ powerful enough to issue resolution that is binding on all members. Some of its objectives of the United Nations security council are the recommendation of peaceful means to the agreement of peace negotiation; appointment of special representative or ask the General-Secretary to appoint special representative and set some principles; among others is the issuing of ceasefire; sending troops for peace keeping missions also accompanied with these is the recommendation to the General Assembly and it Secretary -General the admission of new members and with the help of the Assembly the appointment of personnel’s to the International Court of Justice (ICJ)( Sahar Okhovat ; 2011). The UNSC has 15 member states out of which 5 are permanent members given veto power; although it should be taken into account that the UN initially had 11 member as at it creation. “The charter has proven to be a flexible instrument only amended three times to enlarge the Security Council from its original 11 members to 15”.( Student Handout ; Background on the United Nations)
The 5 permanent members with veto powers are the; The Peoples’ Republic of China , France, Russia, United Kingdom and United States, all other 10 non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly of Majority vote with a two years tenure. The non-permanent members are elected from all the regions to accommodate equal representation.( Sahar, Okhovat; 2011)
The presidency of the United Nations Security Council is rotated among members equally in alphabetical order of appointment whereby the position is held for one month. The president is given some responsibility of being the spokes man of the council among other things . “Article 27 of the charter gives the Security Council affirmative member agreement of 9 out of 15 and decisions on substantive matters are made by affirmative votes of the 9 members including that,………..
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The purpose of writing this topic shall be vied or analyzed through the eyes or lane of these research objectives. These are ;
1) To examine the role the United Nation Security Council played in the resolution of the Gulf war crisis of 1990-1991
2) To critically analyze the effectiveness of the UNSC resolutions on the Iraq-Kuwait war and how it helped to an end to the war
3) To examine the challenges that hindered the effectiveness of the UNSC resolution on the aftermath of the war ( Iraq-Kuwait 1990-1991).
4) To examine the remote and immediate causes of the war and how it affected the national and regional balance of power in the Middle-East.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research question will serve as a backbone or a guideline in the critical analysis of all the features involved or encountered during the carrying out or establishment of facts
1) What role did the United Nation Security Council play in the resolution of the Gulf War?
2) How effective was the UNSC resolution on the Gulf War crisis?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
These are guidelines which would help in the adequate analysis and critical understanding of all the essential features of the Gulf war in relations to the Research Objectives.
1) The United Nations Security Council played major role in the Gulf war crisis.
2) The UNSC resolutions on the Iraq-Kuwait crisis was effective in the resolution of the crisis.
3) Economic and Political issues lead to the outbreak of the war.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would be of great relevance to both academic and the international relations practitioners. The study seeks to establish how effective was the United Nation Security Council resolution of the Gulf War Crisis. This serves as a core feature to the success of this research. Moving on from this , this study would help to show readers and analyst of international political events on the various analysis and procedures embarked on by the UNSC , in the various resolutions such as RES 688 , 687 , 689 . 6 These resolution are the weight at which the UNSC put on Iraq in order for them to redraw from Kuwait. Furthermore the study will help understand why such resolutions were taken and just how effective the resolutions were to the stop of the War. In all this study will be able to center a pace at which further academic research and analysis of international political events ( crisis and conflicts) can to viewed from the perspective of the United Nations Security Council.
Another major significance of the study is to establish the causes and major triggers of the Gulf war and how it affected the lives of both warring state citizens and also the external bodies like the other Arab states and the Western countries. From the study will analyze how these features came together to cause the outbreak of the War.
Overall all these feature will be brought together to establish the causes of the War and also try to show just how significant is the UNSC in the resolution of the Gulf war in the analysis of future academic endeavor of global events .