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THE WORLD BANK AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: AN APPRAISAL OF LOCAL EMPOWERMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT (LEEMP) IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA, 2004 – 2009

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
………………………………………………………………….1
1.2 Statement of
Problem………………………………………………………………………7
1.3 Objectives of the
Study…………………………………………………………………….8
1.4 Need and Significance of the
Study……………………………………………………..9
1.5 Scope of the
Study…………………………………………………………………………11
1.6 Limitations of the
Study…………………………………………………………………..12
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY………………….14
2.1 Literature
Review……………………………………………………………………………14
2.1.1 Poverty: Conceptualization, Theories and
Causes……………………………………14
2.1.1.2 Conceptualization of
Poverty……………………………………14
2.1.1.3 Theories and Causes of
Poverty………………………………..15
2.1.1.3.1 Individual Deficiency
Theory…………………………………….16
2.1.1.3.2 Cultural Belief Systems and the
Sub-Cultures of Poverty
………………………………………….18
2.1.1.3.3 Poverty Caused by Distortions in the
Social, Economic and Political Systems
……………………….19
2.1.1.3.4 Poverty Caused by Geographical Disparities
…………………21
2.1.1.3.5 Poverty Caused by Cumulative and
Cyclical
Interdependencies……………………………………….24
2.1.1.3.6 Poverty Encouraged By Government Welfare
Schemes and Anti Poverty
Programme………………………..26
2.1.1.4 Theories of Development and Perspectives on
` Community
Development…………………………………………27
2.1.1.4.1 The Neo-Colonial Dependency
Model…………………………..27
2.1.1.4.2 The Growth and Linear-Stages
Theories………………………31
2.1.1.4.3 Neoclassical Counterrevolution: Market
Fundamentalism….34
2.1.1.4.4 Systems
Theory……………………………………………………..36
2.1.1.4.4.1 System
Boundary……………………………….…..38
2.1.1.4.4.2 Open And Closed
Systems………………..….….39
2.1.1.4.4.3 System
Environments……………………….…….40
2.1.1.4.4.4 Energy in System
Theory…………………..……..40
2.1.1.4.4.5 Entropy in System
Theory……………..…………41
2.1.1.4.4.6 The Pattern of Social
Systems………………….42
2.2 Perspectives on Community
Development………………………………………………44
2.2.1 Conceptual Definition of
Community…………………………………………….44
2.2.2 Conceptual Definition of Community
Development…………………………..46
2.2.3 General Characteristics and Principles of Community
Development…….47
2.2.4 Purpose of Community
Development…………………………………………….50
2.2.5 Approaches and Strategies for Community
Development…………………..51
2.2.5.1 Community
Collaboration…………………………………………52
2.2.5.2 Community
Strengthening………………………………………..53
2.2.5.3 Community
Participation………………………………….,………53
2.2.5.3.1 Typologies of
Participation……………………..,……….55
2.2.5.3.2 Enlisting
Participation………………………,…………….58
2.2.5.3.3 Factors Affecting
Participation…………………,……….59
2.3 Service-Oriented Interventions and Community Development
…………………….64
2.3.1 Therapeutic
Orientation…………………………………………………………….65
2.3.2 The Emic and Etic Perspectives on
Intervention………………………………67
8
2.4 Community Case
Reviews…………………………………………………………………..68
2.4.1 Nepal (Nepal Capacity
21)………………………………………………………….68
2.4.2
Victoria………………………………………………………………………..
………..71
2.4.3
Ghana………………………………………………………………………….
………..75
2.4.4 South
Africa……………………………………………………………………………78
2.4.5 Vietnam
………………………………………………………………………………..79
2.5 Synthesis of the Literature
Review………………………………………………………..82
2.6 Theoretical
Framework………………………………………………………………………84
2.6.1 Mapping out the Causal Chain between Input and
Outcomes…………….86
2.6.2 Understanding the Context of the
Intervention……………………………….86
2.6.3 Anticipating Heterogeneity in Intervention
Context…………………………..87
2.6.4 Executing Rigorous Factual Analysis of the
Context………………………….87
2.7 Application of the Theory to the
Work……………………………………………………88
2.7.1 Mapping out the Causal Chain between Input and
Output…………………89
2.7.2 Understanding the Context of the
Intervention……………………………….89
9
2.7.3 Anticipating Heterogeneity in Intervention
Context………………………….89
2.7.4 Executing a Rigorous Factual Analysis of the
Context……………………….90
2.8
Hypotheses……………………………………………………………………………
………..90
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND
METHODOLOGY……………………………………….91
3.1 Type of
Research……………………………………………………………………………..91
3.2 Sources of
Data……………………………………………………………………………….91
3.3
Instrumentation………………………………………………………………………
……….91
3.3.1 Validity and Reliability of
Instruments…………………………………………..93
3.4 Population of
Study………………………………………………………………………….93
3.5
Sampling……………………………………………………………………………….
………94
3.5.1 Sample
Size…………………………………………………………………………..94
3.5.2 Sampling
Technique…………………………………………………………………95
3.6 Questionnaire
Distribution………………………………………………………………….96
10
3.7 Instrument Return
Rate……………………………………………………………………..96
3.8 Method of Data
Analysis…………………………………………………………………….97
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Performance Level of LEEMP Projects in Enugu
State………………………………101
4.2 Factors Responsible for the Level of performance
Achieved by LEEMP Intervention Projects in Enugu
State……………………… 138
4.3 Ways of Improving LEEMP Interventions and Community
Development Efforts in Enugu
State……………………………………………………174
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary
…………………………………………………………………………………….200
5.2
Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………
……..201
5.3
Recommendations…………………………………………………………………..
………202
BIBLIOGRAPHY
……………………………………………………………………………………213
APPENDIX

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