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UNITED STATES AND PEACE MEDIATION IN AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIA – BIAFRA WAR

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ————————————————————————————- i
Approval page —————————————————————————- ii
Dedication ————————————————————————————- iii
That the young might know wisdom and learn prudence; war is an unnecessary evil!
United States and Peace Mediation in Africa: A Case study of the Nigeria – Biafra War 11
Acknowledgement —————————————————————————- iv
List of Figures ————————————————————————————- v
List of Tables ————————————————————————————- vi
List of Maps ————————————————————————————- vii
Acronyms ————————————————————————————- viii
Abstract ————————————————————————————- ix
Table of contents —————————————————————————- x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ———————————————————– 1
1.1 Background of the Study ———————————————————– 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ———————————————————– 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study ———————————————————– 5
1.4 Significance of the Study ———————————————————– 5
1.5 Literature Review ———————————————————– 7
1.6 Theoretical Framework ———————————————————– 16
1.7 Hypotheses ———————————————————– 18
1.8 Method of Data Collection ———————————————————– 18
1.9 Method of Data Analysis ———————————————————– 19
CHAPTER TWO: U.S. – AFRICA RELATIONS —————————————– 20
2.1 The Era of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade —————————————– 21
2.2 The Colonial Era ———————————————————– 24
2.3 The Cold War Era ———————————————————– 26
2.4 The Post-Cold War Era ———————————————————– 27
2.5 U.S. – Africa Foreign Policies ———————————————————– 28
2.6 U.S. Strategic Interests in Africa ———————————————————– 43
2.7 U.S. Foreign Aid and Assistance to Africa———————————————— 55
CHAPTER THREE: U.S. – AFRICA PEACE MEDIATION —————————— 57
3.1 Instability and Political Crises in Africa ————————————————– 59
3.2 The Congo Crisis (1960 – 1964) ———————————————————– 65
3.3 The War in Somalia (1991 – 1993) ——————————————————— 68
3.4 The War in Angola (1975 – 2002) ———————————————————- 70
3.5 The Rwanda Crisis (1993 – 1996) ———————————————————- 74
3.6 The War in Sudan (1983 – 2005) ———————————————————– 79
That the young might know wisdom and learn prudence; war is an unnecessary evil!
United States and Peace Mediation in Africa: A Case study of the Nigeria – Biafra War 12
CHAPTER FOUR: U.S. AND THE NIGERIA-BIAFRA CIVIL WAR (1967- 1970) 81
4.1 Hostilities Commence ———————————————————– 83
4.2 The foreign Interventions ———————————————————– 85
4.3 The America Intervention ———————————————————– 88
4.4 The End of the War ———————————————————– 97
4.5 The Lessons ———————————————————– 98
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION————————————— 102
5.1 Summary and Conclusion ———————————————————– 102
5.2 Recommendations ———————————————————– 106
BIBLIOGRAPHY ———————————————————– 108
APPENDICES ———————————————————– 118
Appendix 1: U.S.-Africa Relations Chronology —————————————— 118
Appendix 2: U.S.-Africa Relations Chronology —————————————— 121
Appendix 3: Estimated population and distribution —————————————— 131
Appendix 4: Top 15 African Diaspora Populations —————————————— 133
Appendix 5: Map of Africa —————————————— 134
Appendix 6: USA States and Capital Map —————————————— 134
Appendix 7: The Regions of Africa

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