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WATER QUALITY AND ALGAL DIVERSITY OF FISH PONDS AND DAM RESERVOIR IN GESEDADDO FARMS, YOLA, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………………. . i
APPROVAL PAGE………………………………………………………………… ii
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………… iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………….. iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………… v
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………… vii
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………….. viii
LIST OF PLATES………………………………………………………………….. ix
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………… xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………..… 1
1.1 Objectives of the study ………………………………………………………..…. 2
CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF LITERATURE…………………………………….. 4
CHAPTER THREE:MATERIALS AND METHODS………………………………… 12
3.1 Study Area …………………………………….……………………………….. 12
3.2 Meteorological Data……………………………………………………….…… 13
3.3 Sampling ………………………………..…………………………………….. 13
3.3.1 Sampling for physico-chemical factors ………………………………………. 13
3.3.2 Sampling for Phycological (Algal) Studies …………………………………….. 14
3.4Physico-chemical Analysis …………………………………………………….. 15
3.4.1 Transparency………………………………………………………………….. 15
3.4.2 Temperature…………………………………………………………………… 16
3.4.3 Dissolved oxygen……………………………………………………………… 16
3.4.4 PH……………………………………………………………………………… 16
3.4.5 Conductivity…………………………………………………………………… 17
3.4.6 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)…………………………………………………. 17
3.4.7 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)………………………………………… 17
3.3.8 Phosphates……………………………………………………………………. 17
3.4.9 Nitrates………………………………………………………………………. 19
3.4.10 Sulphates…………………………………………………………………….. 19
3.4.11 Sodium………………………………………………………………………. 20
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3.4.12 Potassium……………………………………………………………………… 21
3.4.13 Calcium………………………………………………………………………… 21
3.4.14 Magnesium…………………………………………………………………….. 22
3.4.15 Trace elements (Cu, Zn,Mn,and Fe)………………………………………… 22
3.4.16 Total hardness…………………………………………………………………. 22
3.5.1 Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of phytoplankton……………………. 22
3.5.2 Determination of trophic status……………………………………………….. 23
3.5.3 Diversity Indices Margalef’s(d) and Shannon Wiener……………………….… 23
3.6Data Analysis………….………………………………………………………. 24
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS……….……………………………………………. 25
4.1Meteorological Results………………………………………………………….. 25
4.1.1 Solar Radiation, Relative Humidity, Wind Speed, Rainfall and Air Temperature 26
4.2 Stocked Fish Pond (Location 1) …………………………………………………… 27
4.2.1 Physico-chemical Parameters…………………………………………………… 27
4.2.2 Phycological result for stocked fish pond(Location 1) ………………………… 30
4. 2.2.1 Algal biodiversity ………………………………………………………….. 30
4. 2.2.2Monthly variations in algal biodiversity……………………………………….. 30
4.2.3 Correlation analyses amongst the investigated parameters for the stocked fish pond 34
4.3 Unstocked Fish Pond ………………..……………………….…………….….…. 37
4.3.1 Physico-chemical Parameters……………………………………………….…. 37
4.3.2 Phycological results for the unstocked fish pond……………………………….. 38
4. 3.2.1 Algal biodiversity of unstocked fish pond …………………..………………. 39
4.3.2.2 Monthly variations in algal densities in the unstocked fish pond ……….……. 41
4.3.3 Correlation analyses amongst the investigated parameters for Location ……… 43
4.4 Dam Reservior (Location 3) …………………………….…………………..…. 47
4.4.1 Physico-chemical Parameters…………………………….………………….…. 47
4.4.2 Phycological results for Location 3………………………………………….…. 50
4. 4.2.1 Algal biodiversity of Location 3 …………………………………………….. 50
4.4.2.3 Correlation analyses amongst the investigated parameters for Location 3…… 54
4.5 Checklists of algae found in Gesedaddo farms…………….. ………………… 57
4.6 Percentage Composition of Algae found in Gesedaddo farms……………..… 64
4.7 Percentage population of Algae by Location………………………….……… 65
4.8 Results of Cyanphycean and Chlorophycean indices……………………………. 65
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4.9 Shanon- Wiener and Margalef diversity indices………………………………..…. 65
4.10 Comparison of physic – chemical parameters and algal population in the various
locations…………………………………………………………………………. 68
4.10.1 Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for physico-chemical parameters….… 68
4.10.2 DMRT for algal species across the locations ……………………………….… 68
4.10.3 DMRT for algal species across the dry and wet seasons…………….………… 71
CHAPTER FIVE:DISCUSSION ….……………………………………………… 73
5.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….. 79
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………….………… 81
Appendices…………

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