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Yoruba migrants in Dutsin-ma Local Government Area of Katsina state from 1976 – 2015

10,000 3,000

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CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1      INTRODUCTION

Yoruba people are seen in every part of the country and in many communities of the world, they are people who have left their homes in South-western Nigeria and have moved to other places to settle either temporarily or permanently. The movement of such people mostly from their places of origin to a new place occurs due to multiple reasons often summed up base on lee Everett “push” and “pull” reasons or factors of migration. Push factors have tended to drive people out in search of better living conditions while pull factors are believed to be socio-economic and political reasons that have attracted them to a particular place for better means of livelihood across the world. Migration is defined by Eisenstadt as the physical transition of individual or group from one society to another. This transition according to him, normally involves abandoning one social setting and entering another and different one. His emphasis is mainly on leaving a whole set of social life and of a person’s previous residential region and establishing a new set of social life in a latter or new region where they migrated,1 such people are generally referred to as migrants. In most cases, migrants play vital roles towards the development of the communities which they settle while in some other cases, the impacts of the migrants can also be negatively felt in the new environments they settled. Because relationship is prone to hiccups due to the fact that sometimes indigenes feel threatened by migrants usually as a result of land tussle or economic struggle over scarce resources. Places like Kano, Minna, Kaduna, Benue, Jos and Nasarawa state are examples of where indigenes have felt threatened and this has led to clash between migrants and host communities. Cases like this have led to security threats and displacement of people. Udo explains that migrants to rural areas do not require special skills to function effectively as farmers or petty traders, he further ascertain that migration leads to the development of rural areas and all exert considerable impact on the economy of the origin of migrant itself.2

Among the various ethnic groups that have been active in migration processes across Nigeria for a long period are the Yoruba people who are highly mobile, town dwelling people, who built kingdoms and empires long before they came into contact with the European.3They are among the oldest surviving groups in the forest of the South of Nigeria including the Edo speaking people who have successfully established and maintained vast kingdoms within the forest environments of Nigeria.4

Yoruba people in Nigeria, apart from religion affinity, can be said to be liberal that is why they easily go along and settle among other language groups as it is seen in Northern Nigeria. The Yoruba–speaking people of Nigeria are concentrated in Ondo, Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Kwara, Ekiti and Lagos States. While majority of the Yoruba live in Western Nigeria, there are also substantial Yoruba communities in the Republic of Benin and Togo as well as in the United States and United Kingdom.5 The Yoruba share a linguistics homogeneity as well as common traditions and traced their decent from a common ancestor called Oduduwa, who is believed to have established the Ife dynasty.6 The Yoruba were never united under a common government rather Yoruba land consisted of several powerful monarchial states such as Ife, Oyo, Egba and Ijebu etc. However, certain political positions were recognized throughout the whole of Yoruba land, the most important has been the Oni of Ife, who was regarded as the spiritual ruler of all Yoruba and the Alaafin of Oyo who was the political leader of the Yoruba people.7

Most of the Yoruba city states were controlled by the Obas (or royal sovereigns with various individual titles), and councils made up of chiefs (Oloyes), recognized leaders of royal, noble and often even common descent, who ruled over the kingdoms through a series of guilds and cults. Different states saw different ratios of power between the kinships and Chiefs councils. Some states such as Oyo had powerful, autocratic monarchs with almost total control, while in others such as the Ijebu city state, the councils held more influence and the power of the ruler or Oba referred to as the Awujale of Ijebu land was more limited.8The kingdoms of Yoruba spent hundreds of years fighting one another in wars of supremacy, conquest and expansion, none of which resulted in a permanent victory over the other. Yet the only thing that they had in common amongst themselves was their language, historical stock, affinity and respect for Ile-Ife and acknowledgement of it as their spiritual home and anthropological source.9

The Yoruba are pre –dominantly an agricultural people. The main occupation of the men is farming of yam, cassava, maize, beans, cocoa, rubber, palm oil and tobacco production. Most of these foodstuffs are used as food crops. The Yoruba also engage in mechanized agriculture in order to boost food and cash crop production for human consumption and industrial demand.10 The women engage primarily in trading such as selling of clothes, food stuff which are mostly seen among the women and it has become part of their culture as means of earning livelihood. There are also a considerable number of professional artists and craftsmen who excel in activities such as wood carving, smelting of iron, gold smelting, pottery, dyeing, weaving, cloth making and others.11

The migration of Yoruba people to Hausa land have been attributed mostly to trade, trade has been their most common occupation and it has linked this two different people together even before the coming of the Europeans, although colonial rule have intensified the movement of more Yoruba people into Hausa land because of the man power the colonial government needed. According to Adegbola, migrants he asserts are able to break social rigidity which hinders economic development and therefore they introduce new skills, techniques of production and so on, which they had earlier gained during their migration career.12 New skills introduced by migrants in rural are learned by the indigenes through this inter relations are forged. Ajaegbu on the other hand opines that rural to urban migration are most frequent and partly reflects due to the wide range of ecological situation, population resource relationship and availability of various local resources and opportunity.13 This has prompted migration into places like Dutsin-ma as economic inter-dependence serves as a major factor for mutual co-existence. In the case of our study area, Yoruba people in Dutsin-ma have settled there for number of reasons, they came for mostly commercial purposes as widely seen across the town. The Yoruba migrants have established quite a number of commercial enterprises such as printing press, photography businesses. They have also ventured into artisanship like automobile repairs, iron bending and welding, among others.

Yoruba women also operate a number of food restaurants around Dutsin-ma such restaurants are popular joints enhancing intergroup contacts, more so they also specialized in tailoring and others. All these have served as a bond of unity in the town. The coming of the Yoruba people to Dutsin-ma can be seen as place which have provided better opportunity to their businesses and livelihood, introducing the local community to different dimension of entrepreneurship unlike the places they came from that have high competition.

  • STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Statement of the research problem is the foundation of any research work; this is because every historical epoch has its peculiar problem. The choice of choosing this research is influenced by various factors, to list but a few among is:

Much had been written concerning migrants in different areas, societies and communities in Nigeria. However, only few works of historical relevance on migration which has led to inter-group relations have been done in areas of Dutsin-ma Local Government Area. Thus far, there have not been available written literature on Yoruba migrants in Dutsin-ma Local Government Area, this have made materials limited for the conduct of the research. The interest on how both Yoruba and Hausa have had cordial relationship over the years prompted the research on the subject matter in order to understand the case of Yoruba migrants in Dutsin-ma unlike other natures of inter-group relationships seen in other parts of Nigeria.

  • AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to explore and analyze the migration of Yoruba people into Dutsin-ma for better livelihood which has developed into intergroup relations in the Local Government Area of Katsina state from 1976 – 2015.The objectives are:

  1. To establish the rationale behind the migration.
  2. To examine the attitude of the host community to the migration of the Yoruba people to Dutsin-ma.
  3. To examine the socio-economic and religious activities of Yoruba migrants.
  4. To study the dynamics of inter-group relations between Yoruba migrants and their host community.
  5. To analyze the socio-cultural influence of the host community on Yoruba migrants.
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Considering the fact that there has not been any study on the Yoruba migrants in Dutsin-ma Local Government Area, this study makes a contribution to literature on inter-group relations on Dutsinma L.G. This is particularly important because it fill the gap created by paucity of literatures on inter-group relations in the area. It is hoped that policy makers will find this work relevant in formulating policies on inter-group relations in Nigeria. More so, the study sets the stage for further research.

1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research method entails the collection of several sources which can be used in these study mainly primary and secondary sources. The primary sources entails the use of oral information which can be derived through in-depth oral interviews with some important individuals who have knowledge of issues concerned in this study and national archives materials. This information is often regarded as first hand, because they are often obtained either from participants or those who serve as the only source of information left to a particular issue involving this study. The secondary sources to be used are published and unpublished materials such published materials are published books, Journals and articles while the unpublished materials can be B.A projects, M.A dissertation and Ph.D. thesis from History and also sources from other disciplines of related works gotten from Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Bayero university Kano, Isa kaita College of Education Dutsin-ma, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina among others.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study starts from 1976 when Dutsin-ma became a local government that is Dutsin-ma Local Government Area, the study will terminate in 2015 in order to update on contemporary developments on intergroup relations in the area. The study is limited to Dutsin-ma Local Government area such as Darawa, Karofi, Shema, Yarima of Katsina State, with focus on Dutsin-ma where the Yoruba migrants are concentrated. It should be noted that the unwillingness of the interviewers to divulge some vital information on the subject matter, scanty of sources have all hindered the ability of the researcher in the course of carrying out the research thereby, limiting the extent of the research. Similarly, in the course of carrying out the research, it was discovered that some of the informants who are to provide some vital and relevant information either died or are out of the area. Resources for conducting this research was also a challenge as well as the time frame allowed for conducting the research. This problem forms part of the limitation of the research. Nevertheless, the researcher will do everything possible to overcome the problems by travelling to places within the study area in order to retrieve vital information for the work.

1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

It has already been observed that as an area of study, migration appears to be one of the recent themes in African historiography. People migrate for a lot of different reasons and these reasons affect the overall migration process. Many theories have been written on migration. Migration has been theorized by using different approaches of scholars, theories of migration are important because they will help us to understand population movements and why they occur. Three (3) theories of migration will be used to explain why people migrate, there have been numerous attempts to methodologically quantify measure and predict factors that make human migrant. One of these is Ravenstein introduced in 1875, then followed by Lee Pull-push model in 1966. It is then followed by Zipf’s inverse distance law.14 These three migration theories are the most popular and wide held to be true even today by reviewing each model, although their approaches are different, the one that best describe this case study will be identified.

Ravenstein is widely regarded as the earliest migration theorist, as an English geographer he used census data from England and Wales to develop his “Laws of Migration”. He recognized the relevance of distance as a factor of migration. Ravenstein stated that most migrants move only a short distance because it is easier to get transportation and communication. Migration occurs in steps from rural areas to cities, he also said migration often counter flow that is migration happens in two ways and lastly, migration can be sped up by technologies and spread of information.15 All this summarize Ravenstein’s law of migration. His laws provided insight on certain factors that will affect human migration. Although Ravenstein’s law were merely list of principles and explanations, just like listing out points, they are not scientific and systematic enough and it’s not generalized.16 As seen, Ravenstein’s law of migration is just a list of facts.

Lee’s Pull-push model took a step further by introducing a more scientific approach; Everett Lee opines that migration is governed by Pull and Push factors. Push factors are negative features of migration that cause a person to move away from a place. These factors include unemployment, low wages, and natural hazards while the pull factors are what is known as the attractions either real or imagined that exist in other places; such as better wages more jobs opportunity and good schools are the pull factors. Lee also mentioned intervening obstacles which include illiteracy, lack of capital, political differences, military services and even family pressure.17 Lee’s model is better than that of Ravenstein because it is much more scientific and generalized. Instead of mere listing, Lee classifies factors in negative, positive and neutral. He further classifies them in “origin” or “destination”. People migrate from their origin to a destination that they believe will aid their survival. Lee’s model provide a very powerful tool to understanding migration.18 It is generalized ranging from social, economical to environmental and provides a corresponding prediction. From Lee’s model one can see the pulling and pushing factors and the outcome.

Although generalization is good, however, it comes along with assumption. Assumption can hinder a model’s applicability and compromise the reliability of the outcome. Lee’s model, though great, has a few underlying assumptions. These are regarded as limitations of Lee’s model. As seen above, comparing Lee’s model and Ravenstein’s law, more scientific and quantifiable approaches are preferred as models are more realistic and objective.

In 1960, Zipf introduces his own model to explain human migration. He used clues from Newton’s Universal law of gravitation – Zipf’s migration model is known as the gravity model. This model suggests that number of migrants between town I and J is inversely proportional to the distance D between them. Both number of migrants and distance between towns are objective numbers.19 This approach takes Lee’s model a step further. This model has its own advantages; measurable variables mean the outcome is absolute, predictable and reliable unlike Lee’s model.

This model can be applied to any situation from small scale migrations to global migrations. However, it’s down fall or turnoff is that by using the mathematical nature of the model, it sacrificed many other factors. For instance it only takes distance into consideration. There are many other counter examples such as migration from Hong Kong to Europe then let say Nepal where distance between Hong Kong and Nepal is shorten, here Zipf’s model cannot explain.20

As seen from the above, the best theory that justifies this study will be the Lee’s model of pull and push whose approach is more understandable in predicting trends of migration of the Yoruba people into Dutsin-ma Local Government Area. Lee’s model showed that people are free to migrate because they have skills, education and qualification which might be needed in other places. Lee also mentioned that there are minimal barriers to migration such as race, class, income, language but this should not hinder migration and that distance should not be a factor in migration.

Lee’s model best describes why Yoruba people migrate into Dustin-ma because they have the skills needed in this place and for their survival. The lack of employment, low wages and natural hazards are summed up by Lee to push people out for migration, these factors can be seen as the issues that led to Yoruba migration to areas such as Dutsin-ma which have been less crowded and free to get employment or build up new businesses. The need for workers in education sector to either teach in secondary schools or college of education and also other bodies such as post office among others have attracted migrants into the area.

1.8 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

The concepts to be viewed concerning this study are migration and intergroup relations. Concepts are the basic theme or aspects of any study, as the entire study depend largely on the understanding of the concepts.

Migration

   In the studying of human migration, understanding the concept form a complex interconnection of the process of spatial organization of migration which is an important element of any society. Human migrations make up societies because no society is without migrants. Migration has been known to be a very complicated issue; no one has yet provided any concept or basis which can be universally in all situation or circumstances is accepted as a perfect definition of migration. In view of the above, scholars have provided a clear picture of the concept of defining human migration.

Clarke, J.I. opines that “there is no unanimity over the meaning of migration though many consider it as movement involving a change of residence of substantial duration. Clarke was of the opinion that migration cannot be defined perfectly as it involves a wider range of elements which encompasses the numerous spatial movements of populations.21Therefore, the definition of human migration remains inconclusive.

Trewartha, G.T. placed emphasis on distance, human williness to change in permanent residence is migration. He described that the term ‘migration’ has various shades of meaning. Most commonly migration involves a movement of some distance, which results in a change in permanent residence. But according to him, this restrictive definition would exclude other types of human mobility, including the daily trek of commuters between a city center and its peripheral areas, the shifted migrant workers, the temporary and irregular movements of tourists and wonderings of pastoral nomads.22 Hence the usual definition of migration is stretched so that it may include a wide range of population mobility, even though space may not permit.

Lee, E.S. in his theory of migration made an attempt to provide a theoretical background for the spatial movement of population. In his own words, he defined migration as broadly a permanent or semi-permanent change of residence.23 In his opinion, no restriction is placed upon the distance of the move or upon the voluntary or involuntary nature of the act and no distinction between external or internal migration. According to Ross, J.A. migration is a geographic mobility that involves a change of usual residence between defined political or statistical areas or between residence areas of different types.24

From the foregoing, many definitions about migration have been given all with the same focus ‘movement from one place to the other’ which is the common aspect of migration. Hence, it can be deduced that migration is the movement of people from one place to another in search of better means of survival.

Intergroup relations

It has already been observed that as an area of study, intergroup relations appear to be common in themes in African historiography. Behavioral scientists like M. Sheriff and C.W. Sherif rationalized inter-group relations from the social psychological perspective and have given an insight on this issue. They conceptualized intergroup relations as “states of friendship or hospitality, cooperation or competition, dominance or subordination, alliance or enmity, peace or war between two or more groups and their respective members.25

Afigbo in his analysis of the Igbo and their neighbors offers another important theoretical formulation on intergroup relations. According to him; intergroup relations presupposes contact and interaction between groups each of which has an identity, to make some inputs into the relationship, in short, each of which has some scope and area of autonomous action.26

This raises a number of fundamental conceptual issues regarding the phenomenon of intergroup relations that should be clarified. The first is that intergroup relations entail contact and interactions between groups. This ordinarily implies that it is a logical consequence of contact between people, in which case, it deals with human beings and is therefore a social phenomenon. Emphasizing this point is Lohor who observed that intergroup relations refers to the interactions which take place between members of different groups and societies who come in contact with one another. It pertains to symbolical or face to face interaction between different societies.27

The significance of this is that in whatever form it manifest whether as inter-ethnic, inter-racial, inter-religious, inter-class and so on, intergroup relations reflect human actions which are also part of the process of existence channeled towards economic, political and social development. It is instructive to note that though sometimes these relationships took the form of war and enslavement, they also expressed themselves through diplomatic treaties, the visits of wandering scholars and the borrowing of techniques. Consequently regardless of the fact that each ethnic group has its unique identity and occupies a distinct contiguous territory, there was and has always been considerable contact between groups which antedates contact with Europe.28 As seen from the above, there is no relationship that does not have cracks, intergroup relations have both negative and positive impacts but in most cases of such relation as in Yoruba and Hausa case has been more cordial.29

From the above, one can infer that intergroup relations can emerge both in the form of immediate interactions of the representatives of various groups as in the case of the Nigerian peoples.                                                                                                                                                                                          1.9 LITERATURE REVIEW

Migration is an important theme of historical study and research in any society of the world. Due to relevance in understanding and providing knowledge of the socio–economic, political and cultural changes as case study in the unfolding social order in human history, this could take either positive or negative forms of developments. It can also help in revealing the genesis of the nature of prevailing inter-relations between and among distinct groups in societies whether friendly or hostile. With reference to Dutsin-ma Local Government Area, works have not been adequately developed, though much of the developed works are quite different from the focus of this study. However, a review of some related works will be carried out in order to help in shaping the nature of the study.

  1. Bako in his book “Sabon Gari Kano: A history of immigrations and inter group relations in the 20th century” mentioned that the Yoruba were the earliest settlers in Sabon Gari Kano in the 1920s, colonial administration was the reason behind the migration of people into Sabon Gari Kano especially the Yoruba who migrated to Kano purposely worked for the colonial government while others settled for mission purposes both Christian and Islamic. He also stated that the increase in economic opportunities attracted more Yoruba who were artisan traders. His work have impacted on the knowledge of migration and intergroup relations, although his work was focused on Kano metropolis.30

R.O, Olaniyi in his work titled “Yoruba in Kano: A Commercial History of Migrants Community”, traces the migration and settlement of the Yoruba in Kano. He claims that the Yoruba migration to Kano in the 20thcentury was a continuation of historical process that began centuries earlier. He also acknowledged that the Yoruba in Kano are products of push and pull factor stating that economic crisis and social deprivation gave impetus for the push of Yoruba migration to Kano while the prospect of economic gain was a major pull that influenced the migration of Yoruba artisans and traders to Kano. He further concludes that a majority of Yoruba migrants were Muslims and as such Islam was a major social link in the migration and settlement of Yoruba Muslim in Kano. This he claims, explains why a majority of early Yoruba migrants to Kano were Muslim traders, while most Christians migrated as employees of European firms.31 Although Olaniyi is concerned with only Yoruba in Kano, so it is limited to Kano thus his approach towards this topic provided a vital guide to this study.

  1. I, Dusai’s work titled “The Edo Migrants in Kano 1912-1975”, attempts to explain the push and pull factors behind the migration of the Edo-speaking community to Kano. He bears the view that economic hardships pushed the Edo people out of their homes and the economic prosperity in Kano pulled them to migrate to Kano. He also claims that for several decades there was absence of unity among the Edo migrants in Kano and as such the community could not become cohesive in its early years.32Although Dusai’s work was only centered on Edo migrants in Kano, his work have contributed to my research because some of his ideas were analyzed up to the period of our study, although the lacks historical depth.

U.M, Bello in his work titled “An Immigrant community: The Nupe in Sokoto”, starts by examining the colonial conquest of Nupe land and how the introduction of colonial policies which included monetization of the local economy through the establishment of a colonial tax system and colonial forced labor, compelled the Nupe people to migrate to other area of economic activities. He argues that the Nupe were pushed out by unemployment and colonial exploitation. He also notes that the opportunity of participating in the business of iron smelting was another factor that attracted the Nupe Blacksmith into Sokoto. He further discusses the roles they played in the socio – economic activities and politics of the state.33Bello’s work will however serves as a guide to this study however he only looked at the Nupe immigrant during colonial period. In this study not only colonial policies would be examined but also other factors that had existed before the colonial period. Therefore, Bello’s study only covers colonial migration; it only gave an insight into migrant community during colonial period, although our study stretches beyond colonial contact. The work of Bello would help in the understanding of migrants and also give ideas on how the relation between migrants and host community have co-habited during the colonial period.

M.A, Jibril’s work titled “A History of Nupe Community in Kaduna Metropolis”, establishes the impacts of the relocation of the Northern Nigeria Capital from Zungeru to Kaduna in the movement of the Nupe migrants to Kaduna, as well as the push and pull factors responsible for the migration of the Nupe to Kaduna. He also examines the motives behind the establishment of Tudun Nupawa ward in Kaduna and its role as a unifying factor among the Nupe migrants. In addition, he looked at the roles of the Nupe migrants in the mobilization and organization of labour among the migrant groups in Kaduna. Jibril also established the contributions of the Nupe in the development of Islam in Kaduna through their engagements in various Islamic learning activities.34 He also studied the dynamics of the interaction between the Nupe and other communities with special reference to the Hausa people, as well as the impact of the cosmopolitan nature of Kaduna on the Nupe community against the background of their attempts to retain their cultural identity. Although, Jibril’s work is concerned with the activities of the Nupe migrants in Kaduna, his work lack clear historical approach, however, his work serves as a guide to this study.

  1. Yusuf in his work titled “The Ebira community in Kano”, examines the establishment of an Ebira community in Kano and discusses the activities of the Ebira and the relationship between the Ebira and the host community, as well as the establishment of the Ebira people Association (EPA) which resulted from the increase in the number of Ebira people in Kano. He also looks at the contribution of the Ebira people Association towards fostering unity among Ebira residents in Kano. In addition, the ability of the association to form an Ebira community leader (Ohinoyi) in Kano, and the effort and activities of the ohinoyi towards the unification of the Ebira in Kano.35Although his work focused on Ebira people in Kano, some of his ideas are narrowed to our area of study.
  2. S, Kabir’s in his work titled “Igbo Migrants of Katsina Town C.1970 – 2009”, discusses migration and its types in an attempt to knit the nature and category of migration which the Igbo are related with. He therefore discussed the push and pull causes of migration as well as the positive and negative effects of migration. He traced the migration and settlement of the Igbo in Katsina to a wave of migration from Arabia led by Jabkigbo who he claimed entered ‘Gobir’ in present day Katsina. He also identified the migratory structure of the Igbo as a cluster form of migration for defense purpose. He further looked into the customs and culture of the Igbo, but failed to provide knowledge on how the Igbo migrants in Katsina have been able to maintain their customs and cultures. He also stated that the host community did not have any socio – cultural influence on the Igbo migrants rather, they embrace Western cultures and social way of life. However, he explained that the relationship between the host community and the Igbo migrants is good and cordial most of which has to do with economic activities centered on the exchange of commodities.36 Although kabir’s work is not within the limitation of his study, it seems inadequate and does not provide detailed and convincing information on the causes, course, migration pattern and settlement of the Igbo migrants in Katsina town.
  3. Ibrahim in his work titled “The Emergence and contribution of the Yoruba Community to the Development of Funtua Town”, explains that Yoruba Dispersal to Funtua was basically encouraged by voluntary and forced migration because most of the Yoruba came to Funtua for economic reasons and better housing. He discussed the dispersal of the Yoruba to Funtua during the colonial and post-colonial era which he attributed to as a result of the push and pull economic reasons and a chance of diversified economic potentials in Funtua. He also explained the settlement patterns of the Yoruba in Funtua which he categorically accounted for as Gidan Ogbomosho, Sabon Gari, Sabon Layi and Bakori road, providing reasons why the Yoruba preferred them in their varying forms. He also looked into the various economic activities of the Yoruba in Funtua and how the activities have contributed immensely towards the growth and development of Funtua town.

The social activities and contribution of the Yoruba in Funtua was not overlooked in addition to the contribution of the Yoruba on moral and spiritual counseling in Funtua, which he observes as essential in ensuring a sound and healthy wellbeing as well as relations. He also discussed the nature of the intergroup relations between the Yoruba and their host community and how the Yoruba have been able to keep themselves as a single unit under and effective leadership system (Sarkin Yarabawan Funtua) that ensures unity and cohesion amongst the Yoruba in Funtua town. He discussed the various problems faced by the Yoruba in Funtua that usually result to conflict and has threatened their presence and continued stay in Funtua. He however admitted that the Yoruba – Hausa relation in Funtua has not been smooth all although since there were periods of tensions of ethnic pressure and stress in the relation.37Thus,this work have given ideas on intergroup relation among Hausa and Yoruba people. The Yoruba migrants in Funtua have been a link to the growth of Yoruba people in Dutsin-ma due to the fact that some migrated from Funtua.

L.K, Ibrahim in his work titled “Katsinawa in Minna: A study of Migrant Community From 1912 to 2011”, traces the establishment of a community of Katsinawa migrants in Minna and looks at the stages involved in the process as well. He started by stating the culture of the Hausa people who move to other places for economic reasons during the idle dry season only to return to their places during the wet season. He stated that the Katsinawa in Minna are a migrant community that resulted from search for economic opportunities and greener pastures, noting that the Katsinawa engaged in an uncoordinated mode of migration. However, the stages of their migration are pre – colonial, colonial and post – colonial. He explained that the early Katsinawa migrants moved to Minna before colonial contact as traders along with their merchandise and decided to settle at Limawa in Minna. Ibrahim wrongly noted that their choice of settlement was because of the rail way terminus at Limawa as it is a fact that there was not a single rail line in Nigeria prior to the colonial period. However, he stated that the civil war of 1967 – 1970 also attracted the Katsinawa to settle in Minna. His summations about the economic engagements of the Katsinawa in Minna seem to cut across all aspects of the possible economic endeavors of human existence. Socially, he indicated that the Katsinawa in Minna participated in the pursuit of both Islamic and Western education while stressing that the chances of acquiring Islamic education also attracted Katsinawa to move to Minna. He also noted that the Katsinawa in Minna took part in political activities as coordinators in the various political parties in the state. He described the nature of inter – group relations between the Katsinawa and their host community as one of peaceful co – existence, good understanding and harmonious wellbeing.38 Although his work focused on Minna, his work have covered some aspect of our period of study and has given ideas on how intergroup relations has changed and affected recent development in this kind of study.

  1.   Muhammad in his work titled “ Inter – Group Relations in Katsina Metropolis (A Study of  Yoruba Migrants Community 1960 – 2011)”, discusses the migration of Yoruba into Katsina using the push and pull factors of migration whereby he stated that the colonial and post-colonial migration of the Yoruba were caused by economic reasons and search for better housing. He opines that the expansion of legitimate trade during the colonial period opened up more opportunities to the Yoruba merchants to migrate and settle in Katsina. He further explains that shortage of manpower after the Second World War prompted the educated Yoruba to increasingly migrate to Katsina to fill the unoccupied positions as clerks in the European firms and in the British colonial administration. Muhammad also states that the creation of Katsina as a state in 1987 attracted the Yoruba migrants into the town for economic prospects, by claiming that state capital attracted capital and human resources. He also looked into the nature of inter – relation between the Yoruba and their host community which he termed as a state of mutual understanding and cooperation that is enhanced by religion and commerce, as well as language and inter–marriages. He also explained the efforts of the Yoruba people in Katsina to ensure mutual understanding, unity and cooperation while maintaining their cultural and ethnic identity through the establishment of various religious and ethnic associations.39 Muhammed’s work has also informed this study.
  2. Ibrahim in his work titled “The Significance of inter – Group Relations in the socio-Economic Development of Zuru Town from in the 20th Century”, focuses on the socio – economic activities of migrant groups in Zuru town from the colonial period. He identifies the Hausa as the earliest migrant group to have arrived at Zuru town. Other migrant group he identifies in his work includes the Yoruba, Igbo and some other groups such as the Zabarmawa. Their major activities were discussed as well as the significance of the socio – economic activities they engaged in. Ibrahim opines that the migrants contributed towards the establishment of settlements in the town as well as the development of trade which led to the construction of roads in the town. He also explained that the migrants contributed towards the political development of the town, and participated in the political affairs of the town.40 Although, Ibrahim’s work is concerned with inter-relations in Zuru town and it serves as guide to this study. In his work he only gave a brief knowledge about the Yoruba group in Zuru town but in our research, Yoruba make up the very significant aspect of the study.
  3. Muazu in his work titled “Inter-Group Relations in Dakingari Town During the 20th century”, examines the nature of inter-group relations in Dakingari town during the colonial and post-colonial periods. He identifies the Yoruba and Igbo as the main ethnic groups that established inter – relations with the Hausa and Fulani group in Dakingari town. He also examine the changes that have occurred in the interaction processes over the course of time from the colonial to post-colonial period.41Although Muazu’s work is of a similar significance to this study, it does not provide a detailed explanation of the Yoruba migrants in Dutsin-ma Local Government Area. It is however, used to ascertain some facts in the course of completing this research.

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Thus far, this chapter attempts to present a general introduction of the study briefly traced what led to the migration of the Yoruba group to Dutsin-ma local government. This chapter also sheds some light into what is meant by the concept migration which had led to intergroup relation. An overview of the Yoruba people encompassing their nature as a highly mobile, town dwelling people as well as places they can be found within and outside Nigeria was also considered. It also briefly looks at the socio-political and economic structure of the Yoruba people especially relating to their origin, and cohesive belief system including their affinity and acknowledgement of Ile-Ife as their spiritual home and recognition of the oni of Ife as their spiritual leader. The recognition of Oyo and its ruler as the political base of the Yoruba and their monarchical systems of government were also briefed. In addition to the predominantly agrarian economy that also involves other professional and craft activities and the participation of women in trading. This chapter also contains details on the statement of research problem, the aim and objectives, the significance, the scope and limitation of the study, the methodology, theoretical framework, conceptual clarification as well as review of literature related to this study for proper guide and to shape the nature of this study.

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